An essay on Knowledge and Belief – John Corcoran

Cunoașterea sau ceea ce putem cunoaște este o temă de analiză importantă pentru filosofie 1 iar acest scurt eseu realizat de John Corcoran vine să prezinte în linii mari nivelurile de cunoaștere la care putem ajunge. Credința (în termeni de cunoaștere) este și ea o formă de cunoaștere.

Cuvinte cheie: knowledge, belief, propositional knowledge, objectual knowledge, operational knowledge, certain knowledge, cognition, credence, probable knowledge, moral certainty, scientific certainty, cognitivism, probabilism, skepticism, inferences, intuitions, lies of ignorance, lies of knowledge


This essay treats knowledge and belief , both in various sens es. The focus is on propositional knowledge (knowledge-that) but it also treats both objectual knowledge (knowledge of objects in the broadest sens e, or knowledge-of) and operational knowledge (abilities and skills, knowledge-how-to, or know -how). It begins with knowledge in a strict sense. In this sense, a given person knows that a given proposition is true only if the person’s judgment that it is true was the culmination of a cognitive process which includes understanding the proposition, gathering sufficient evidence based on personal experience of the facts the proposition is about, and bringing th at evidence to bear on the issue of whether the proposition is true. In th is sense, every proposition known to be true is true. Moreover, knowledge in this sense is personal; it represents a cognitive accomplishment by the knower, and there is no way to buy knowledge or even to impart it. A teacher can assist by directing student attention and encouraging students to become more autonomous by doing things for and by themselves. In this essay, belief that is knowledge in the strict sense is called certain knowledge or cognition. Other belief merits being called knowledge only to the extent that its acquisition approximates cognition, knowledge in the strict sense. Accordingly, propositional knowledge in the broadest sense spans a spectrum between two limiting cases; at one end we have cognition, which is rare outside of mathematics, and on the other end we have groundless belief, which is not [125] knowledge at all; it is called credence here. In this broad sense, knowledge includes cognition but excludes credence. Between the two extremes we have what is conveniently but awkwardly called probable knowledge . Somewhere along the spectrum of probable knowledge we have moral certainty , belief that is sufficiently grounded to serve as basis for responsible action and warranted assertion. A member of a jury should vote to acquit unless moral certainty has been achieved. Scientific certainty is an even higher level of warranted assertibility. We can have scientific certainty that smoking is deleterious to health

  1. Epistemologie

Film-Philosophy (februarie 2018)

Film-Philosophy is an open access peer-reviewed academic journal dedicated to the engagement between film studies and philosophy. The journal is interested in the ways in which films develop and contribute to philosophical discussion.

The Sensation of the Look: The Gazes in Laurence Anyways
Corey Kai Nelson Schultz

To See or Not to See: A Wittgensteinian Look at Abbas Kiarostami’s Close-up
Elizabeth Hope Finnegan

Deep Truth and the Mythic Veil: Werner Herzog’s New Mythology in Land of Silence and Darkness
André Fischer

The Art of Attention in Documentary Film and Werner Herzog
Antony Fredriksson

Small Talk and the Cinema: Conversation, Philosophy and the Case of Sullivan’s Travels
Cooper Long

Deleuze, Žižek, Spring Breakers and the Question of Ethics in Late Capitalism
Jenny Gunn

The Creaturely Life of Carol Reed’s Cities: Eric Santner and Walter Benjamin
John Charles Hill

Lee Carruthers (2016) Doing Time: Temporality, Hermeneutics and Contemporary Cinema
Kyler Chittick

Shaun May (2016) A Philosophy of Comedy on Stage and Screen: You Have to Be There
Cameron Moneo

Ilona Hongisto (2015) Soul of the Documentary: Framing, Expression, Ethics
Laurel Ahnert

Art History & Criticism 2017

Art History and Criticism No. 13’s (Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania) encompasses a wide range of topics in studies of art.

In this issue, the reader will find articles about the junction of art and politics, the functioning of museums and galleries, modern theater topicality and applying new, interdisciplinary methods in researching church construction and architecture. The published articles are by experts of art, architecture, photography history, museology and modern theater.


M. K. Čiurlionis and St. Petersburg: New Facts Concerning His Painting Black Sun / 5

The Building and Renovation History of Vilnius and Kaunas Churches: Dendrochronological Datingand Historical Sources / 18

Politicized Aesthetics: German Art in Warsaw of 1938 / 29

Dislocation: the Conflict of Photographic and Cinematographic Representations of War in Soviet Lithuania/ 42

Soviet Modernism in the Historic Context. The Cases of Vilnius and Panevėžys City Centers / 58

Tension Between Everyday Practice and the New Museology Theory: a Case of the National Gallery of Art in Vilnius / 76

Contemporary Lithuanian Artists: Career Opportunities / 88

Thomas Shadwell’s the Vir tuoso as an Assemblage Laboratory. A View from Installation Art / 111

Multiplicity of Cruising: interactions with the Unknown and Realisation of Cruising for Sex in A. K. Campbell‘s The Pride / 123

Book Review: The History of European Photography, Volume III. 1970–2000 / 135

Vytautas Magnus University în parteneriat cu VMU Research Foundation

China and the World – Vol. 01, Nr. 01 (martie 2018)


Vol.1, No.1 (February 2018)


News and Reports

Journal Papers

Omnipresent Economics: The Belt-and-Road-Initiative (BRI )Underpinning
Da Hsuan Feng and Haiming Liang

Chinese Dynasties and Modern China:Unification and Fragmentation
Belal Ehsan Baaquie and Qing-Hai Wang

Building a Bridge Between East Asia and Middle East on the Modernization of Regional Traditional Medicine – A Cross-Cultural Innovation in Response to the Belt and Road Initiative
Leung Ping Chung

China’s Global and Civilizational Re-Balancing and India’s Options
B. R. Deepak

We Should Push Countries Along “Belt and Road Initiativ”” to Build Green Supply Chain
Jingyan Fu

The One Belt One Road Narratives
Tai Wei Lim

Belt and Road Faces a Bumpy Ride
Toh Han Shih

Singapore and Hong Kong: Historical Images
Wang Gungwu